UV Mapping

UV mapping is the process of projecting a 2D image onto a 3D model’s surface. By unwrapping the models surface onto a 2D space, you will produce UVs. UVs act as marker points that control which points (pixels) on the texture correspond to which points (vertices) on the mesh. 

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This process allows you to correctly place a texture on a model without any deformations (if done right). Below you can see an example of the incorrect and the correct texture mapping on a plain sphere. 

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To get a better idea of what UVs are, here is an example of the complex model with its unwrapped surface (UVs) on the left side. 

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Mapping from primitive shapes

The easiest way to map a texture to the model is to do it by mapping from primitive shapes – planar, box, cylindrical and spherical. You can do this by choosing a mapping from the right panel of the UI, or rotate the mapping options with the shortcut CTRL + SHIFT + U. After choosing a mapping, your UVs are selected and you are able to move, scale or rotate your textures through gizmo operations.

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